Ques: What were major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
Ans:-In 19th century global capitalism compelled India to open itself to a global system. Obviously from the end of the 19th century onwards, important political, economic and social events that occurred at the international level, left their imprint on India as well.
Political Events- Among political events, the defeat of Italy at the hand of Ethiopia and that of Russia at the hand of Japan proved a major game-changer as they shattered the myth of invincibility of western powers. These events encouraged political extremism in India during the early 20thcentury.
Likewise the First World War, on the one hand, added further fuel to the fire of revolutionary nationalism, on the other hand, it paved the way for the Rowlett satyagraha movement of Gandhi. Furthermore, the Second World War created a big challenge to British Rule by encouraging Quit India Movement.
Economic Factor- At the global level, phenomena like Marxism, Leninism and World Economic Depression gave a new direction to Indian politics in the 1920s and 1930s. Marxism and Leninism paved the way for the rise of the leftist movement in India while World- Economic Depression made a further contribution to it as it discredited the capitalist system. Their cumulative effect was Civil Disobedience Movement under Gandhi and so many peasant movements in the 1930s.
Social Factor- As a social factor the movement against racial discrimination in South Africa and the Khilaphat issue of Turkey influenced the course of action in India. Khilafat issue became the trigger for the first mass movement under the Indian National Congress.
this way, in almost all the phases, Indian national movement got inspiration from the political, economic and social developments held at the global level.