Ques: Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence since the twentieth of the centuries.
Ans:- In the history of a national movement, the decade of the 1920s appeared to be a formative phase during which new objectives and programs were introduced and they added a new dimension to the movement.
Earlier the objective of the independence movement was merely political freedom but during this phase, it expanded to economic and social freedom as well. New objectives influenced the whole course of action.
The objective of Economic freedom-
From the 1920s onward the political, as well as economic fronts of a national movement, came near to each other. Then, it was emphasized that even internal contradictions within Indian society should have been addressed. This contradiction existed between industrialists and workers, the landlords and peasants. During this period left party i.e. communist and socialist parties became much active and continued to mobilize peasants and workers. Apart from that Trade Union movement received a major boost and in 1936 there was a formation of All Indian Peasant’s Sabha. Furthermore, during this period under the youth leaders, Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawahar Lal Nehru, the congress underwent an internal transformation and in the Karachi session (1931), Lucknow session (1936), and Faizpur session (1937) it adopted the certain socialist program.
The objective of social Freedom-
The caste movement as well as the movement for women’s rights added a social dimension to the national movement. From the 1920s onwards the leaders like Bhimrao Ambedkar in Maharashtra and Ramaswami Priyar Naykar in Madras brought the issue of lower caste people to the list of national priority and even Gandhi acknowledged it. Likewise, women leaders, Mrs. Anni Besant and Dr. Sarojani Naidu campaigned for women’s suffrage.
Thus during the 1920s onwards, National Movement became more inclusive.